Tag Archives: v1

Extra-Striate Visual Areas

Due to the heavy burden of the packing problem, the brain alleviates some responsibility of off-loading information to the extra-striate visual areas. These areas are specialised for particular visual data. Colour information is relayed to V4, motor information is relayed to V5, and lastly, object







Secondary visual cortex: V2

The secondary visual cortex envelops V1 and is organised into parallel stripes running perpendicular to the V1/V2 border. Stripes that respond to the same region of the retina run adjacent to each other, preserving the retinotopic map. These stripes come in three types: thick, think and pale. Pale stripes are known as interstripes as they run between thick and thin stripes. Input is fed to the pale stripes from the hypercomplex cells of V1, and it is then forwarded to the LGN via the parvocellular layer. The main job of the pale stripes is to respond to oriented lines. Secondly, thick stripes receive input from layer 4B of V1 and respond to specific orientations as well as cells of binocular disparity. Output from the thick stripes is passed onto V5 via the magnocellular pathway. Lastly, thin stripes receive inputs from colour blobs of V1, hence they are sensitive to colour or brightness. Output from the thin strips project to V4 via the parvocellular stream.


V4 is the colour area, and cells here respond to colour, simple shapes and objects. As colour does not have its own parameter, it does not have an accurate retinotoic map. As such, V4 serves as the first indication of decline in retinal location and the rise of feature based primary indices.


As mentioned above, the thick stripes of V2 project to V5. V5 is known as the motor areas it responds to motion and stereo disparity. Non-spatial parameters are beginning to take precedence over maintaining the retinotopic map as it is no longer maintained here. Zeki (1990) confirmed the hypothesis found when he found that paths across the retina become more chaotic the further they are from the striate cortex.

The Inferotemporal Cortex

Each point of the inferotemporal cortex represents a different view of a face. Despite the highly abstract parameter, nearby cells represent similar views of the face. Over the past years, there has been discussion over whether inferotemporal cortex cells are grandmother cells. The inferotemporal cortex was monitored while a patient was shown various faces; one cell seemed to respond only to pictures of Jennifer Aniston of Friends (Connor, 2005). Nearby cells did not seem to respond to different views of Jennifer Anniston, but they did respond to characters from the same shows. These findings suggest that nearby cells represent many parameters that occur nearby in time. The temporal proximity of views experienced in everyday life may be reflected in the physical proximity of cells in the cortex.