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The Cranial Nerves

cranial nerves

 

The majority of the cranial nerves emerge from the brain stem on the ventral surface of the brain. Cranial nerves I and II emerge from the forebrain and cranial nerve XI from the brain stem as well as the spinal cord. As they are nerves they are classified as part of the peripheral nervous system; however, two of the cranial nerves are also considered part of the central nervous system, I and II. Each nerve often has fibers performing many different functions. Also they have associated cranial nerve nuclei in the midbrain, pons and medulla of the brainstem.

I. Olfactory: a special sensory cranial nerve responsible for our sensation of smell.

II. Optic: a special sensory cranial nerve responsible for our sensation of vision.

III. Oculomotor: a somatic and visceral motor cranial nerve responsible for the movement of the eye and eyelid as well as the parasympathetic control of pupil size.

IV. Trochlear: a somatic motor cranial nerve responsible for the movements of the eye.

V. Trigeminal: a somatic sensory and motor cranial nerve responsible for the sensation of touch on the face and the muscles of mastication.

VI. Abducens: a somatic motor cranial neuron responsible for the movements of eye.

VII. Facial: a somatic and special sensory cranial neuron responsible for the movement of muscles of facial expressions as well as the sensation of taste in the anterior 2/3 of the tongue.

VIII. Auditory-vestibular: a special sensory motor neuron responsible for the sensation of hearing and balance.

IX. Glossopharyngeal: a somatic and visceral motor cranial neuron as well as a visceral and special sensory cranial neuron responsible for the movement of muscles in the throat and the parasympathetic control of salivary glands in addition to the detection of blood pressure changes in aorta and the sensation of taste in posterior one third of tongue.

X. Vagus: a visceral motor and sensory cranial neuron as well as a somatic motor neuron responsible for the parasympathetic control of heart, lungs and abdominal organs as well as the sensation of pain associated with the viscera and movement of muscles in the throat.

XI. Spinal accessory: somatic motor neuron responsible for the movement of muscles in the throat and neck.

XII. Hypoglossal: a somatic motor cranial neuron responsible for the movement of the tongue.

cranial nerves2

Citation:

Bear, Mark F., Barry W. Connors, and Michael A. Paradiso. Neuroscience: Exploring the Brain. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2007. Print.