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Profile of a psychologist: Philip Zimbardo

Philip Zimbardo, Psychology

Philip Zimbardo, Psychology

Philip G. Zimbardo is world renowned for his controversial study, the Stanford Prison experiment. In more recent years he has become known for his theory known as the “Lucifer Effect,” in which he investigates the question “What makes good people do bad things?” A Professor Emeritus of Psychology at Stanford University and currently still teaching, Zimbardo also holds the title of two-time past president of the Western Psychological Association and past president of the American Psychological Association. As a social psychologist, Zimbardo constantly questions how we interact and influence others in our society; however, most notably, he seeks to discover how our environment is and will remain our strongest influence.

Philip Zimbardo was born in 1933 to a Sicilian-American family in New York City, New York. His academic career landed him classmates with another future social psychologist, Stanley Milgram, in James Monroe High School. Next he merited a BA from Brooklyn College and a PhD from Yale University. After several years of teaching a universities all across the United States, he finally started his professorship at Stanford in 1968. Since 2000, Zimbardo has been on a mission to bring psychology to the forefront of research and also the public eye by presenting a TV series on “discovering psychology” and lecturing at TED, to name a few.

zimbardo2Inspired by Stanley Milgram’s obedience studies in 1963 that demonstrated the moral aberration people are willing to commit to obey authority, Zimbardo aimed to discover what makes people concede their moral compass when put in a place of power. Zimbardo wanted to uncover under what circumstances people would “willing use (or abuse) power granted to them.” In light of this curiosity, he carried out the Stanford Prison experiment in 1971. His subjects were twenty-four, mentally healthy, American, university students. The similarity of subjects attempted to control for all dependent variables. Randomly, the students were assigned the role of “guard or prisoner.” Then one morning the “prisoners” were arrested by real police officers whom booked to them be transferred to the mock prison built in the basement of the Stanford Psychology Department.

zimbardo3Once transferred into the “prison,” the “prisoners” were “stripped, searched, deloused, and given uniforms and bedding.” The prisoners were then stripped of their identify and dehumanised by the “guards” who were told to  refer to them by assigned numbers. To heighten their lack of freedom, the “prisoners” also had a chain bolted around one ankle. The “guards” wore military inspired uniforms, sunglasses (to prevent eye-contact) in addition to carrying keys, whistles, handcuffs and clubs. The “guards” patrolled 24 hours a day and where given full control of the “prisoners” to maintain order. It did not take long for the environment to quickly turn “threatening” forcing the experiment to end prematurely after only six days.

Every single “guard” became “abusive and authoritarian; prisoners were denied food or bedding, hooded, chained, and made to clean toilet bowls with their hands.” The “prisoners” were used as playthings to take part in the “guards” degrading games. One prisoner had to be released after only thirty-six hours after suffering a nervous break.

Zimbardo’s findings, the basis for the Lucifer Effect showed the world that good people can be induced to evil by “immersion” in “total situations.” Total situations have an “apparently legitimizing ideology and approved rules and roles.”  Zimbardo served as an expert witness in the defense of a guard during the Abu Ghraib trails, which as Zimbardo discusses in his TED video, showed many parallels with the Stanford Prison Experiment. The Abu Ghraib prison abuse against Iraqi prisoners by American soliders gathered wide controversy. Please view the TED video for further information. The scary thing Zimbardo explains is that “any deed that any human being has even done, however horrible, is possible for any of us to do – under the right or wrong situational pressures.” However, as Zimbardo discusses in his final chapter of The Lucifier Effect, his book, these situational pressures not only shows human capacity for evil but also for heroism.

Citations:

Collin, Catherine. The Psychology Book. New York: DK Pub., 2012. Print.

“Philip G. Zimbardo.” Philip G. Zimbardo. N.p., n.d. Web. 09 Aug. 2012. <http://www.zimbardo.com/&gt;.

Zimbardo, Philip G. The Lucifer Effect: Understanding How Good People Turn Evil. New York: Random House, 2007. Print.

The Ebola Virus: What is it actually?

The Ebola Virus has been getting a lot of news coverage recently with a massive outbreak in West Africa. As of March this year the death toll is the highest of any Ebola outbreak ever recorded. The exact number is still increasing, but over one thousand individuals have been exposed with causalities now around 800 (Sender, 2014). Obviously this virus is deadly and scary, but what exactly is it? My family and I were discussing these outbreaks over dinner, and I thought that a great way to learn about it is to do some research.

ebola

History 

Firstly, the Ebola virus causes Ebola virus disease (EVD) or Ebola haemorrhagic fever (EHF) in humans. It is part of Genus Ebolavirus and the Filoviridae family. The Genus Ebolavirus consists of five distinct species:

  1. Zaire ebolavirus (EBOV)
  2. Bundibugyo ebolavirus (BDBV)
  3. Reston ebolavirus (RESTV)
  4. Taï Forest ebolavirus (TAFV)
  5. Sudan ebolavirus (SUDV)

Not all of these species are dangerous to humans. However, BDBV, EBOV and SUDV are all associated with mass outbreaks of EVD in Africa. Out of these three, EBOV is the most deadly. According to the World Health Organisation (World Health Organization, 2014) the RESTV species can infect humans, but they do not cause severe illness or death as is the case with the other three. Since 1994, EBOV and the TAFV species has infected chimpanzees and gorillas (WHO, 2014). Outbreaks of severe EVD have also been found in macaque monkeys in the Philippines in 1989, 1990 and 1996. Not only do outbreaks in non-human primates cause concern for them, but it also creates concern that one day EVD in humans can be brought on by the TAFV species.

ebola2

Map of outbreaks of the Ebola virus in Africa by strain and confirmed contractions. Distribution of Ebola Virus Outbreaks 1979-2008, South Africa Created by: Zach Orecchio University of South Florida Geography Dep. Data Source: http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvrd/spb/mnpages/dispages/ebola/ebolamap.htm

EVD in humans first appear in 1976 in Western Africa. The virus occurred in two simultaneous outbreaks in two different villages, in Nzara, Sudan and Yambuku, Democratic Republic of Congo. The outbreak in the DRC fell along the Ebola River, hence the name.

Aetiology

As mentioned above, the Ebola virus is a virological taxon part of Genus Ebolavirus. The Ebola virus, as an a cellular virus, replicates through a host cell. The virus attaches itself to the host cell’s receptors through glycoproteins. Then it fuses its own viral membrane with the cell’s membrane. This fusion process allows the virus to release its nucleocapsid (which contains the virus’ genetic material) into the cytoplasm of the host cell. Using the cellular machinery of its host, the virus creates viral proteins and then as the protein levels rise, new nucleocapsids are also created (Noda et al. 2006). As the new genetic material rises in number, budding occurs. Budding is where the virus, creates an “envelope” using the host’s cell membrane. Essentially, creating a new virus from the host itself (ibid). Eventually, as more and more viruses are created from the host, the host will be destroyed.

Ultimately, the number of viruses in the body begins to wreak havoc. In humans and other primates, the virus eventually causes extreme hemorrhagic fever and in most cases, death.

Transmission 

Ebola is transmitted to humans through contact with infected bodily fluids (ie. blood, secretions). Contact can be direct through broken skin or mucous membranes or indirectly with environments contaminated with the fluids.The incubation period (2 to 21 days) means that people can get infected by a person that does not even know they are ill. It is natural that family and friends want to mourn their recently deceased loved ones; however, the mourning process can become a high risk activity. Often, the burial ceremonies involve direct contact with the deceased person before the virus has died. In other words, healthy individuals are being infected by their infected, deceased loved one (WHO, 2014). Other common ways Ebola is transmitted is through recovered individuals and working in the healthcare field. Any one that has sex with a man recovered from Ebola can become infected from their semen. The semen carries the Ebola virus up to seven weeks after recovery, hence the man will feel healthy, engage in sexual activity and unknowingly, infect others (WHO, 2014). Healthcare professions are at high risk when the proper sanitary precautions are not enforced or possible. Lastly, people that work with infected primates or pigs can also become infected with the disease; however, the likelihood lesser than contact with a diseased human. As stated above, not all viruses that have infected animals are capable of causing EVD in humans.

Currently there is debate that fruit bats, in particular genera Hypsignathus monstrosus, Epomops franqueti and Myonycteris torquata are natural hosts for Ebola. This hypothesis is based on an overlap between the EVD outbreaks and the geographic distribution of fruit bats in Africa.

Symptoms and Diagnostics

A major concern when treating Ebola is that it carries symptoms similar to many other diseases. According to the World Health Organization (2014) “malaria, typhoid fever, shigellosis, cholera, leptospirosis, plague, rickettsiosis, relapsing fever, meningitis, hepatitis and other viral hemorrhagic fevers” all need to be ruled out. Of course with equipment available in the Western world, this process is quite simple. Ebola can be precisely diagnosed by running a variety of diagnostic tests including but not limited to electron microscopy, antigen detection tests and virus isolation by cell culture (WHO, 2014). These diagnostic tools can rule out other disorders by checking for low white blood cell and platelet counts plus elevated liver enzymes (WHO, 2014).

In Africa, however, these diagnostic tools are not always available. Therefore, it is important that the symptoms are clearly laid out and understood. EVD causes “severe acute viral illness” with symptoms including headache, muscle pain, weakness, fever and sore throat. These initial symptoms then progress into vomiting, rash, diarrhea, reduced kidney and liver function and sometimes internal and/or external bleeding.

Treatment and Prevention 

Currently there is no vaccine for EVD despite many being tested. Those infected with EVD are being treated with various drug therapies, which are always being improved and remedied. Until a vaccine or a truly efficient treatment has been discovered, patients with EVD are being treated in intensive care where they are holistically cared for, keeping them hydrated through IV with an electrolyte solution.

As the mortality rate for Ebola is so high (as high as 90%) the best way to treat Ebola is to prevent it from happening in the first place (BMC, 2014). In other words, the best way to handle Ebola is to prevent it. For the general public this means educating them on how the disease is transmitted, teaching them proper sanitation procedures and providing them with ways to keep clean and safe such as making condoms and cleaning products readily available.

For more information do your own research or check out some of the websites in my bibliography.

Thank you for reading!

Emma

Bibliography 

Assembly and Budding of Ebolavirus. (n.d.). Retrieved August 6, 2014, from

Ebola virus. (2014, May 8). Retrieved August 6, 2014, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ebola_virus

Ebola Virus. (2014, August 4). Retrieved August 6, 2014, from http://www.cdc.gov/vhf/ebola/

Ebola Virus. (2014, June 17). Retrieved August 6, 2014, from https://www.bcm.edu/departments/molecular-virology-and-microbiology/ebola

Ebola virus disease. (2014, April 8). Retrieved August 6, 2014, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ebola_virus_disease

Ebola virus disease. (2014, April 1). Retrieved August 1, 2014, from http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs103/en

Ebola virus disease. (2014, January 1). Retrieved August 6, 2014, from http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs103/en/

Noda, T., Ebihara, H., Muramoto, Y., Fujii, K., Takada, A., Sagara, H., … Kawaoka, Y. (2006, September 29). Assembly and Budding of Ebolavirus. Retrieved August 6, 2014, from Noda, T., Ebihara, H., Muramoto, Y., Fujii, K., Takada, A., Sagara, H., … Kawaoka, Y. (n.d.). Assembly and Budding of Ebolavirus. Retrieved August 6, 2014.

Sender, H. (2014, July 31). Where Is The Ebola Virus? Outbreak Map Shows Virus Deaths In West Africa. Retrieved August 6, 2014, from http://www.ibtimes.com/where-ebola-virus-outbreak-map-shows-virus-deaths-west-africa-1645012